Influence of land use on carbon storage in systems
and primary forest in Napo, Sumaco Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador
Despite growing evidence of the effect of traditional production systems on carbón sequestration and storage, little research has been conducted to examine the relationship between forest and traditional production systems based on the mitigation of climate change, especially in Amazonian ecosystems. This research was conducted in the lower area of the Sumaco Biosphere Reserve, in the province of Napo, Ecuadorian Amazon. We determined the average storage of carbon (C) in biomass and soil, in seven land use systems: Primary forest, traditional agro forestry systems (chakra) based on the cultivation of cocoa (shade-grown) propagated by seed and grafting cocoa monoculture propagated by seed and by grafts, and chakras without cacao and without shade. As a result, agricultural systems studied with the cocoa agro forestry system propagated by seed is the productive ecosystem that stores the most carbon with an average of 141.4 Mg C ha-1; a relatively high quantity when compared with primary forest sequestration averages of 334 Mg C ha-1 in the same area. The component with the greatest contribution to carbon storage in the forest is the live biomass with 79.1%, and in agricultural systems it is the soil, with ranges of 48.9 to 90.2%.
Oswaldo Jadán Mg Sc.
Especialista en Manejo y Conservación
de Bosques Tropicales y Biodiversidad
REPRODUCTIVE PATTERN OF THE AMAZONIAN POISONOUS FROG
• To recognize the phenology associated with the stages of reproductive behavior of R. ventrimaculata.
• To identify the preferences in amplexo, set and larval development of R. ventrimaculata.
Several species of amphibians have been the subject of study and research of reproductive cycles, tropical amphibians have a continuous reproduction, Duellman and Trueb (1986). A distinctive evolutionary feature of poisonous frogs in the Dendrobatidae family is parental care. These amphibians have developed a complex behavior in which the female lay terrestrial eggs, after which the tadpoles are transported by the male to small water tanks and visited daily for the purpose of feeding them (Weygoldt, 1986). Amphibians distributed in the country face serious problems affecting their survival, climate change, introduction of invasive species and pathogens such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, are the cause of population declines and extinction of an alarming number of amphibian species. The results obtained from the Project will allow the development of a program to repopulate the forest relics of the Ecuadorian Amazon, particularly in the area of influence of the Jatun Sacha reserve. Subsequently, training will be developed towards indigenous and peasant communities to achieve both conservation and breeding of this species, through a guide to their upbringing. Amazonian ecosystems that have been impacted by human activities need to be managed. The repopulation of vertebrate species is one of the activities that these ecosystems need. Undoubtedly, the results of this project will allow the development of repopulation with this and other species of amphibians and vertebrates, in addition to strengthening activities such as ecotourism.
FISH OF THE NAPO AND ARAJUNO RIVERS IN THE AREA OF INFLUENCE OF THE AHUANO PARISH.
he fish are a group with a great morphological, ecological and biological diversity. So to investigate part of its great diversity has been undertaken in the investigation of the ichthyofauna present in the rivers Napo and Arajuno, the same that cross the parish of Ahuano and peripherally to the Jatun Sacha Reserve in Tena.
• To know the ichthyofauna present in the zone of influence of the reserve Jatun Sacha.
• Determine which and how the promising species described in the research are used.
In the study, 27 species have been recorded, representing 3.97% of the total of 680 species that have been identified for the ictio-hydrographic zone in which the study area is located. In the study surveys were carried out on people who are engaged in fishing as well as people who make use of the ichthyological resource for food consumption. For the communities close to the study area, the utilities of the water resource are several, without doubt fishing is one of the biggest benefits, both for own consumption by 67% and for commerce by 33%. Although other uses have been described for ichthyological resources such as the elaboration of utensils, weapons for hunting, medicine and bait for fishing. The study contributes to research on species present within the Napo and Arajuno rivers, as well as information on the most commonly used capture methods and species that can be considered for management, processing and consumption within communities nearby. And the most important contribution is that the final document has been translated into the Kichwa so that it becomes a tool for knowledge and management of the ichthyological fauna for local people.
JATUN-SACHA AMAZON FAUNA MANAGEMENT CENTER.
cuador is considered as a megadiverse country, several indicators allow us to verify this assertion: as for its vertebrate fauna excluding fish represents 11.47% of the planetary total, of this percentage 1620 species are birds, 448 amphibian species, 390 reptile species , 369 mammalian species. It is considered as the fourth country in the world in vertebrate diversity. In addition, the level of endemism is 15.6% of the total, considering the level of endemism per taxonomic group, amphibians have 60% of endemism (240 species of the national total), in the case of reptiles 30.5% (114 species of the national total), in the case of birds and mammals is smaller but still important.
The vertebrates as part of the fauna, are subject of threat and predation, reason why many species are considered in danger of extinction. One of the phenomena that worries in Ecuador is the possibility that some of our forests acquire the syndrome of “empty forests”.
As a measure to mitigate the effects of anthropic pressures on Amazonian fauna, has been generated the initiative to breed in semi- captivity three very important species within these forests, such as the sahino, guangana (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari) and capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).
• implement community-based wildlife management, and other sophisticated approaches to wildlife management, such as breeding on game farms, hunting and tourism.
• Increase ‘mini-livestock’ rearing (wild animals reared on small farms)
• Support the sustainable use of forest products other than wood.